Organic nanovectors. Nanomaterials as nanovectors. Extracellular vesicles (EVs). Influence of size, shape, and surface character of nanovectors for drug delivery applications. Conclusions and Future Outlook.
Authors: Aziz Eftekhari, Carola Kryschi, David Pamies, Sukru Gulec, Elham Ahmadian, Dawid Janas, Soodabeh Davaran, Rovshan Khalilov.
Nanomaterials have been extensively studied in cancer therapy as vectors that may improve drug delivery. Such vectors not only bring numerous advantages such as stability, biocompatibility, and cellular uptake but have also been shown to overcome some cancer-related resistances. Nanocarrier can deliver the drug more precisely to the specific organ while improving its pharmacokinetics, thereby avoiding secondary adverse effects on the not target tissue. Between these nanovectors, diverse material types can be discerned, such as liposomes, dendrimers, carbon nanostructures, nanoparticles, nanowires, etc., each of which offers different opportunities for cancer therapy. In this review, a broad spectrum of nanovectors is analyzed for application in multimodal cancer therapy and diagnostics in terms of mode of action and pharmacokinetics. Advantages and inconveniences of promising nanovectors, including gold nanostructures, SPIONs, semiconducting quantum dots, various nanostructures, phospholipid-based liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric micelles, extracellular and exome vesicles are summarized. The article is concluded with a future outlook on this promising field.